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Paul Kane Watercolour - Ojibwe Cermonial Drum
Painted Cree Frame Drum
Cedar Box Drum
Frame Drum with 2 Snares
Octagonal Painted Frame Drum
Butterfly Painted Frame Drum
Ojibwe Frame Drum
Cedar Log Drum
Raven Wolf Drum
Halibut Drum
Dzunukwa Mask
Kwigwis Mask
Bakwas Mask
Deaf Man Mask
Nulamal Mask
Crooked Beak Mask
Baxbakwalanuksiwe Mask
Owl Mask
Ancestor Mask
Xwi Xwi Mask

Mi'kmaq

BOOKS

Biard, Pierre.  1616/1894-1901. “Relation of New France, of Its Lands, Nature of the Country, and of Its Inhabitants.”  In Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Ruben Gold Thwaites, ed. Vol. 3 & 4.  New York: Pageant Book Company. Available online at: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jesuit-relations/h19-151-e.html

Maillard, Abbé Antoine Simon Pierre. (1758.) An Account of the Customs and Manners of the Micmakis and Maricheets Savage Nations, Now Dependent on the Government of Cape-Breton. From an original unpublished French manuscript letter. London: Printed for S. Hooper and A. Morley at Gay’s Head, near Beaufort Buildings in the Strand.

Rand, The Rev. Min. Silas Tertius. (1894 & 1971.) Legends of the Micmacs. New York and London: Longmans, Green, and Co. & New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. (1988.) Stories from the Six Worlds: Micmac Legends. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing Limited.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes, and Harold McGee. (1983.) The Micmac: How Their Ancestors Lived Five Hundred Years Ago. Halifax: Nimbus.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. (1980.) Elitekey: Micmac Material Culture from 1600 A.D. to the Present. Halifax: The Nova Scotia Museum.

ARTICLES

Francis, Bernie. 1968. “Ben Christmas: Chants and Customs.” In Cape Breton’s Magazine 25, 9-12.

Hagar, Stansbury. 1895. “Micmac Customs and Traditions.” In American Anthropologist, 8, 31-41.

Johnson, Patrick. 1996. “The Mi’kmaq.” In The Encyclopedia of North American Indians,
Frederick E. Hoxie, ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 376-378. Also available at http://mrc.uccb.ns.ca/mikmaq.html

Sable, Trudy. 1998. “Multiple Layers of Meaning in the Mi’kmaw Serpent Dance.” In Papers of the 28th Algonquian Conference. University of Manitoba, 329-340.

ARCHIVAL AND UNPUBLISHED RESOURCES

Dennis, Clarissa Archibald. 1923. Journals of Clarissa Archibald Dennis of interviews with Jerry Lonecloud. Public Archives of Nova Scotia, MG. 1, Vol. 2867, Notebook #1.

Joseph, Gary. 2006. Report submitted to Native Dance Project, Gorsebrook Research Institute. Halifax, N.S.: Saint Mary’s University.

Sable, Trudy. 1996a. Another Look in the Mirror: Foundations for Developing an Alternative Science Curriculum for Mi’kmaw Children. M.A. Thesis, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, N.S.

Sable, Trudy. 1996b. Mi’kmaw Male and Female Clothing in the Nineteenth Century: A Report Completed for the Fortress of Louisbourg, Parks Canada.

Sable, Trudy. 1990. Micmac Dance Research Project. Unpublished paper in private collection.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Mi’kmaw Website, 2003.  Retrieved June 5, 2006 from http://www.micmac-nsn.gov/html/mawiomi_2003.html

Mi’kmaq Website. 2003. Retrieved June 5, 2006, from www.micmac-nsn.gov/html/mawiomi

INTERVIEWS

Denny, Susie. 2006. Personal Communication with Kenny Prosper, March 2, 2006

Denny, Kathy. 2006. Personal interview with Trudy Sable, May 1, 2006.

Jeddore, Beverly. 2006. Personal interview with Franziska von Rosen, Jan. 21, 2006.

Jeddore, Beverly. 1986. Personal interview with Barbara LeBlanc.

Johnson, Margaret. 2006. Personal communication with Trudy Sable, May 1, 2006.

Johnson, Margaret and Caroline Gould. 2005. Personal interview with Trudy Sable, Dec. 19.

Johnson, Margaret. 2006. Personal communication with Kenny Prosper, March 2.

Meuse, Joseph. 2005. Personal interview with Gary Joseph, Dec. 15.

Nevin, Frank. 2005. Personal interview with Gary Joseph, Dec. 20.

Nevin, William. 2005. Personal interview with Gary Joseph, Dec.24.

Robinson, Ellen. 2005. Personal interview with Gary Joseph, Dec. 14.


Innu

BOOKS

Diamond, Beverly, Sam M. Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen. 1994.  Visions of Sound: Musical Instruments of First Nations Communities in Northeastern America. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfred Laurier Press.

Webber, Alika Podolinsky. 1997.Dream Paths: An Account of the Naskapi Indians among whom Hunting was a Holy Occupation and Painting a Sacred Art. Author.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Armitage, Peter.  http://www.er.uqam.ca/nobel/religio/no6/armit.pdf, accessed January
4, 2006: 8-9.

Tanner, Adrian.  http://www.heritage.nf.ca/aboriginal/innu.html, accessed September 25, 2006

Special thanks to the following people for allowing us to interview them, and whose knowledge and information is the main source of information for this website essay.

Charles Bellefleur
Marie Bellefleur
Rose Gregoire
Michel Jack
Philamena Jack
Annette Nuna
Kathleen Nuna
George Nuna
Mary Madeline Nuna
Elizabeth Penashue
Francis Penashue
Pien Penashue
Lizette Penashue
Sebastian Penunsi
Philomena Pokue
Dominic Pokue
Simeo Rich
Margaret Rich

Special Thanks to the following people for allowing us to film them dancing and for the valuable and unique contribution that provided for this web site.

Charles Bellefleur
Marie Bellefleur
Rose Gregoire
Apenam Pone
Kathleen Nuna
George Nuna
Elizabeth Penashue
Francis Penashue
Andrew Michelin
Philomena Pokue
Dominic Pokue
Agnes Michelin
Mary Mae Rich
Sylvester Rich

Special thanks to Pien Penashue for allowing us to film and interview him in his home as he drummed and shared songs with us.


Algonquin

BOOKS

Clément, Daniel (ed). 1996. The Algonquins. Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology
  Service, Paper 130. Hull, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization.

Day, Gordon M. and Bruce G. Trigger. 1978. “Algonquin.” Handbook of North
  American Indians: Volume 15 Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Washington:
  Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 792-797.

McGregor, Stephen. 2004. Since Time Immenorial-“Our Story”: The Story of the Kitigan
  Zibi Anishinàbeg. Maniwaki, QC: Anishinabe Printing.

ARCHIVAL AND UNPUBLISHED RESOURCES

Gaultier de la Vérendrye, Juliette Collection, Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1-A-160M: Files B325 and B326; 77-120 / GAU-At-1 B.218 1.6.

INTERVIEWS

Decontie, Pauline. 2006. Interviewed by Elaine Keillor at Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg.

Decontie, Robin. 2006. Personal communications to Elaine Keillor, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg.

Wawatie, Jacob. 2006. Personal interview by Elaine Keillor, Grand-Remous.


Eeyou

BOOKS

Flannery, Regina. 1995. Ellen Smallboy: Glimpses of a Cree Woman’s Life.  Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Morantz, Toby. 2002. The White Man’s Gonna Getcha:  The Colonial Challenge to the Crees in Quebec.  Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Preston, Richard. 2002. Cree Narrative: Expressing the Personal Meanings of Events. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Richardson, Boyce. 1991. Strangers Devour the Land. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre.

INTERVIEWS

Bearskin, Mary, and Paul Cash. 2006. Personal communication, Chisasibi.

Cheechoo, Archie. 2005. Personal communication, Moose Factory.

Cheechoo, Daisy. 2006. Personal communication, Moose Factory.

Cheechoo, James. 2006. Personal communication, Moose Factory.

Louttit, Agnes. 2005-06. Personal communication, Moose Factory.

Small, James. 2006. Personal communication,  Moose Factory.

ARCHIVAL AND UNPUBLISHED RESOURCES

Hudson’s Bay Record Society. 1949. The Publications of the Hudson’s Bay Record
Society: Isham’s Observations and Notes 1743-1749. 1949, reprinted 1968. London: the Hudson’s Bay Record Society.

Kawapit, John. 1978. J. Garth Taylor Collection. “Cree Music” III-D-35T (4:107) Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Civilization Audio-Visual Archives.

National Film Board of Canada. 1980. The Fiddlers of James Bay. Canada: National Film Board of Canada.

Haudenosaunee

BOOKS

Iroquois Dances, 1979. Woodland Indian Cultural and Educational Centre, Brantford, Ontario.

Iroquois Social Dances, 1967. Notes with three vinyl recordings. Iroqrafts, Ohsweken, Ontario.

Kanatohare (Mike McDonald) and Shakokwenionkwas. n.d. Rotinonhshon:ni: Ahkwesahsne

Mohawk Social Dances, Ronatahon:ni Cultural Centre, Cornwall Island, Ontario.

ARTICLES

Social Dances and Their Origins (1990). Ohnewenonwe Neha, Issue #7

Social Singing and Dancing. (2004, spring). Supplement to Indian Time [St. Regis, QC]: 23-24.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Ohwęjagehkáa; Ha ̉degaénage - Earth Songs. http://www.ohwejagehka.com/(accessed 10 July 2006)

INTERVIEWS

Key, Amos, Jr. 2006. Personal interview, Woodland Indian Cultural and Educational Centre, Brantford, Ontario.

General, Arnold, Onondaga Chief. 2006.  Personal Interview.


Anishinaabe

BOOKS

Bjorklund, Karna L. 1969. The Indians of Northeastern America. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.

Harvard, Gilles. 2001. The Great Peace of Montreal of 1701. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Johnson, Basil. 1976. Ojibway Heritage: The Ceremonies, Rituals, Songs, Dances, Prayers, and Legends of the Ojibway. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Laubin, Reginald and Gladys. 1977. Indian Dances of North America: Their Importance to Indian Life. London: University of Oklahoma Press.

Ritzenthaler, Robert E. 1978. “Southwestern Chippewa.” Handbook of North American Indians: Volume 15 Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 743-759.

Speck, Frank G. 1915. Family Hunting Territories and Social Life of Various Algonkian Bands
of the Ottawa Valley. Department of Mines Geological Survey, Memoir 70. No. 8. Anthropological Series. Ottawa.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

ASU Powwow Committee. 2006. http://powwow.asu.edu/description.html (accessed 04/05/06)

Coastal Carolina Indian Center. 2004. http://www.greatsaltwater.com/2004/powwow_primer.htm (accessed 04/05/06)

Nation huronne-wendat. 2005. http://www.wendake.ca/destination/eng/carrefour_des_nations/carrefour_des_nations.htm (accessed 04/05/06)

Native Peoples of Canada. 2006. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/nativepeoples/algo.html (accessed 02/09/06)

Sexsmith, Pamela. 2003. http://www.ammsa.com/buffalospirit/2003/jingledance.html (accessed 03/06/06)

Wikipedia. 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ojibwa (accessed 02/07/06)

INTERVIEWS

Benson, Aaron, 2006. Interviewed by Elaine Keillor at Iskotew Lodge, Ottawa, 26 May.

McGregor, Viola. 2006. Interviewed by Stan Loutitt. Whitefish River First Nation at home.

Recollet, Viola. 2006. Interviewed by Stan Loutitt. Sault Ste. Marie at home residence.


Dene

BOOKS

Keillor, Elaine. 2006. Music in Canada: Capturing Landscape and Diversity. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Sturtevant, William C. and Helm, June, Volume Editor. 1981. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6, Subarctic.  Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.

ARTICLES

Fletcher, Erin. 2003. “The next generation.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. September 15, 2003.

Geens, Jennifer. 2004a. “Dene drum dancing unique in North America.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. August 16, 2004.

Geens, Jennifer. 2004b. “Each drum is special.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. August 23, 2004.

Geens, Jennifer. 2004c. “Fewer traditional drum dances performed.” Northern News
Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. August 23, 2004.

Neary, Derek. 1999. “Music for the Soul.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. July 09, 1999.

Neary, Derek. 2000. “Planting a seed of hope.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. April 07, 2000.

Neary, Derek. 2004a. “What’s old is new again.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. March 19, 2004.

Neary, Derek. 2004b. “Dancer in the Deh Cho.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. August 26, 2004.

Sullivan, Dave. 2002. “It’s time for Kamba.” Northern News Service. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. March 04, 2002.

ARCHIVAL AND UNPUBLISHED RESOURCES

Tatti, Fibbie. 2002. Dene Kede Curriculum. Department of Education, Culture and Employment, Government of the Northwest Territories. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. February 06, 2002.

INTERVIEWS

Mackenzie Delta Region: Gwich’in:

Mrs. Elizabeth Colin. 2006. Fort McPherson, Northwest Territories, December 2006

North Slavey:

Ms. Be’sha (Bertha) Blondin. 2006. Yellowknife (Cameron Bay –Tulita), Northwest Territories, January 2006

Tlicho Region: (Dogrib)

Mrs. Audrey Zoe. 2006. Yellowknife – Fort Rae-Edzo, Northwest Territories, January 2006

Deh Cho Region:

Informant A. 2006. Northwest Territories. January 2006.

South Slavey Region: Metis

Mr. Joe Mercredi. 2006. Hay River, Northwest Territories, January 2006

Akaitcho Region (South Great Slave Lake Region): Chipewyan, Tso’Tine

Mrs. Celine King. 2006. Yellowknife, NT (originally of Fort Resolution, Lutselk’e and Rocher River, NT), February 2006

Mrs. Dorothy Beaulieu. 2006. Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories, January 2006

Mr. Angus Beaulieu. 2006. Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories, January 2006.


Renewal & Adaptation

BOOKS

Berbaum, Sylvie. 2000. Ojibwa Powwow World. Edited and translated by Michael M. Pomedli. Thunder Bay, ON: Lakehead University Centre for Northern Studies.

Blackstone, Sarah J.  1986. Buckskins, Bullets, and Business: A History of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Browner, Tara. 2002. Heartbeat of the People: Music and Dance of the Northern Pow-wow. Urbana/Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Catlin, George. 1848, 3rd edition. Catlin's Notes of Eight Years' Travels and Residence in Europe with his North American Indian Collection. London: author.

Francis, Daniel. 1992. The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture. Vancouver:
Arsenal Pulp Press.

McArthur, Pat Deiter. 1987. Dances of the Northern Plains. Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre.

Powers, William K. 1990. War Dance: Plains Indian Musical Performance. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Wright-McLeod, Brian. 2005. The Encyclopedia of Native Music: More than a Century of Recordings from Wax Cylinder to the Internet. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

ARTICLES

Diamond, Beverley, Sam Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen. 1988. “Vivre ses traditions.” Recherches Amérindiennes au Québec 18/4: 5-21.

Whidden, Lynn. 2005. Review of Northern Cree and Friends CR-6367: Honoring Singers & Songmakers: Round Dance Songs Recorded “Live.” Canadian Folk Music Bulletin 39/3 (Fall 2005): 34.

   * * *

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This project was made possible with the support of the Department of Canadian Heritage through Canadian Culture Online



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